Utilized to create structures of websites and placing content. Many elements have been added to the latest version:
- tags for content management: header, nav, section, article, aside, figure, figcaption, video, audio, time, footer,
- field types: number, tel, email, url, search, datetime, date,
- attributes of form elements,
- api elements,
- DOM methods.
For compatibility with older web browsers, it is necessary to include the library:
- HTML5 Shiv (github.com/aFarkas/html5shiv).
Used to describe the form of website presentation, distribution, the appearance of text and background. The latest version features new:
- markers and properties,
- media types (media-query) allowing to adjust the appearance to mobile phones and tablets,
- set of icons (fontawesome.io),
- animations (daneden.github.io/animate.css).
For compatibility with older web browsers, it is necessary to include libraries:
III. RWD / Bootstrap
CSS library including tools facilitating the creation of graphic interface and adjusting it to phones and tablets. It is used change the look of navigation, texts, forms.
Library for download:
- Bootstrap (getbootstrap.com).
- detecting mouse position and buttons status,
- detecting keyboard keys,
- creating, modifying and deleting fragments of HTML code,
- composing actions, designing complex animations.
Library for download:
To use the functions of the latest web browsers, it is necessary to add the library:
- transit (github.com/rstacruz/jquery.transit), function $.animate is replaced with $.transition, for compatibility with older web browsers, it is necessary to add code:
if (!$.support.transition) $.fn.transition = $.fn.animate;
A technique of creating websites, in which the interaction between a user and server is done without the need to reload. It offers a more dynamic interaction compared to a traditional model, where each new data request means uploading the whole website all over again.
A standard of website optimization for people with disabilities:
- description of links and images,
- contrast of functional and content bearing elements has to have adequate text to background brightness ratio:
- at least WCAG AA 4.5:1 for small letters and 3:1 for large letters,
- most preferably WCAG AAA, 7:1 for small letters and 4.5:1 for large letters,
- large letters, text having font size of at least 18 pt or 14 pt and bold.
A standard of website optimization for search engines and social networks, described in the article: Optimization for search engines and social networks.